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Industrial furnace is a thermal equipment that uses the heat of fuel combustion or electric energy conversion to heat materials or workpieces in industrial production. Broadly speaking, the boiler is also an industrial furnace, but it is customarily not included in the scope of industrial furnaces. Industrial furnaces are divided into two categories according to the thermal system: one is the discontinuous furnace, also known as the periodic furnace, which is characterized by no temperature zone in the furnace, and the furnace is produced in one or two shifts, and the furnace is in each heating cycle The temperature is variable, such as various chamber furnaces, trolley furnaces, pit furnaces, bell furnaces, etc.; the second is continuous furnace, which is characterized by the division of temperature zones in the furnace, generally by preheating, heating (high temperature) ), soaking (heat preservation) three sections, the furnace is continuous production in three shifts, the temperature in each section can be considered unchanged during the heating process of the industrial furnace, such as two-stage or three-stage continuous heating furnace , Push rod heating furnace and heat treatment furnace, ring furnace, walking furnace, vibrating bottom furnace, cupola and lime kiln, etc.
According to the China Report Hall, taking measures to reduce the waste of resources and environmental pollution caused by furnace production is one of the problems that my country has changed and explored the road to industrial production in recent years. Vigorously promoting energy-saving renovation projects in the field of industrial production has become a solution to the industrial production. The main way of tension between production and the environment. Significant results have been achieved in the research and development and application of technologies in the field of industrial energy-saving production at home and abroad. However, due to the late start of our country, there are still many problems in this field that need to be improved and perfected. Therefore, the departments and scientific researchers need to continue to work hard to ensure In the near future, a complete and characteristic industrial production energy-saving system can be formed.
Use new environmentally friendly energy as fuel to reduce environmental pollution.
The energy sources of traditional industrial production are mainly coal and oil. The expansion of industrial production scale worldwide has made the problem of energy crisis more and more serious, causing energy prices to rise sharply, which is beyond the range of countries’ ability to bear. At the same time, industrial production is inevitable. It will cause environmental pollution problems to worsen, and the negative effects caused by the discharge of industrial waste are affecting the normal production and life of human beings. In order to solve the above problems, all countries are committed to the development and application of new alternative energy materials. At present, the widely recognized new alternative energy is non-bioenergy. The cost of bioenergy is low, and the raw materials are everywhere. It is industrial energy-saving production. The better choice.
According to the market research base of Yubo Zhiye, new biofuels have received widespread global attention in recent years. Countries have successively carried out biofuel research and development to replace traditional coal and petroleum and other high-energy-consuming and high-polluting raw materials. The manufacturing mechanism of biofuels is a new type of renewable energy source that develops and utilizes organic matter that can use photosynthesis to produce energy, and extracts energy that can be effectively used by people. In the process of bioenergy manufacturing, both animals, plants and microorganisms can be used for energy development and manufacturing. At present, foreign countries mainly develop ethanol as a new energy source, while my country is committed to obtaining bioenergy from agricultural production. Compared with traditional energy, bioenergy has the following advantages: First, energy sources are diverse and easier to obtain. For example, crop stalks produced by agricultural production, animal manure, garbage discharged from industrial production and daily life, a large number of energy-rich animals and plants, etc., these raw materials are rich in nature, easy to obtain, and have renewable advantage. Second, there are many types of energy products, which can provide a variety of choices for industrial production. The energy produced by bio-transformation technology can take different forms, such as biogas and ethanol. Energy and various solid energy materials, these energy sources can be widely used in industrial production, and will not cause any pollution to the environment, and at the same time enable the recycling of waste in industrial and agricultural production, turning waste into treasure. Third, the production and manufacturing process of new bio-energy can drive the development of related production industries, which can not only reduce industrial production costs, but also increase farmers' output and income, which is conducive to narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor in rural and urban areas. Bioenergy has the advantage of being recyclable. Since its raw material source is organic organisms in nature, it can make plants absorb carbon dioxide, which is disadvantageous and advantageous.
Development and utilization of new combustion technologies
High temperature air combustion technology is also called regenerative combustion technology, which is a highly efficient waste heat recovery and energy saving technology. Regenerative combustion technology refers to alternately switching air or gas fuel and flue gas to flow through the heat storage body, which can recover the sensible heat of high-temperature flue gas to a greater extent, and the exhaust gas temperature can be reduced to below 180°C. The combustion-supporting medium or gaseous fuel is preheated to above 1000°C to form a new type of flame that is different from the traditional flame, and reversing combustion makes the temperature distribution in the furnace more uniform. At present, my country has successfully applied regenerative combustion technology to industrial furnaces such as steel rolling furnaces, glass furnaces, aluminum melting furnaces, forging furnaces, and ladle roasters.
Pulse combustion technology is a method of intermittent combustion. It uses pulse width modulation technology to achieve temperature control of the furnace by adjusting the on-off ratio of the combustion time. This technology is easier to control the furnace temperature of the heating furnace, so the temperature field in the furnace is uniform and the temperature fluctuation is small, and it can also save fuel. In recent years, this technology has been gradually promoted and applied in the combustion system control of industrial kilns such as metallurgy and ceramics, with good results.
According to the "2011-2016 China Industrial Furnace Industry Market Survey and Investment Risk Assessment Report" released by the China Report Hall, it is understood that the oxyfuel combustion technology is a highly efficient and enhanced combustion technology that is worth more than the conventional oxygen content in the combustion air. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology can reduce the ignition point of the fuel, the combustion reaction speed is fast, the combustion is complete, the excess air coefficient is reduced, and the amount of smoke after combustion is reduced, thereby improving the efficiency of heat utilization. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is more suitable for high-temperature industrial furnaces, such as metal heating furnaces and glass melting furnaces. Some data show that if the forging furnace uses 23%-25% oxygen-enriched air for combustion, it can save 1/4 of the fuel. The staged combustion technology means that the insufficient amount of air is sent to the main combustion zone by changing the air supply method to form excess combustion of oxygen-deficient fuel, and then the remaining air is added in the secondary combustion zone to form a fuel-lean combustion zone to complete the entire combustion process . Staged combustion can reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides. According to the results of the project operation, the use of staged air-supply combustion technology can reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides in the tail gas by about 35%.
Effectively reuse the by-products produced in the production process
Industrial furnace waste heat mainly refers to the sensible heat of the discharged combustion products and the sensible heat taken away by heating products. The amount of heat taken away by these sensible heat is relatively large. If it can be used well, its economic and social benefits are both significant medium and high temperature flue gas waste heat. The main utilization methods include: using waste heat boiler to produce steam or heating heat transfer oil directly, using heat exchanger to preheat combustion-supporting air, and using waste heat boiler to produce steam and using steam turbine to generate electricity. Taking steel rolling heating furnace as an example, steel rolling heating furnace is released The flue gas temperature is about 1000℃, and an air and gas preheater is installed in the flue to preheat the combustion air and gas. The air can be preheated to 600℃, and the gas can be preheated to 300℃. The fuel consumption per ton of steel can be reduced by 0.3GJ.
Low-temperature flue gas waste heat generally refers to the waste heat of flue gas with a temperature lower than 400°C. Although this waste heat is of low grade, the amount of waste heat is large. Now, pure low-temperature waste heat power generation technology is generally used to save energy and reduce consumption and generate economic benefits. For example, a cement plant converts the waste heat of low-temperature exhaust gas below 400°C into electricity and uses it for production, which can reduce the comprehensive power consumption of cement clinker production by about 60%, or reduce the comprehensive power consumption for cement production by about 33%.
Residual pressure recovery power generation technology refers to the use of waste gas pressure generated by industrial kilns directly for power generation. For example, a blast furnace top gas residual pressure turbine power generation device in a steel plant is a device that uses the pressure energy of the blast furnace top gas to perform work through turbine expansion and drive a generator to generate electricity.
In recent years, my country’s technical level in the production of industrial furnaces and kilns has been significantly improved. However, compared with other countries, there are still areas to be improved in terms of energy conservation and emission reduction. To fundamentally realize the full use of energy At the same time, it will take a long time to achieve zero pollution to the air. For this reason, we should further increase research and development and improvement on the basis of energy-saving technologies that have already achieved results, and achieve the goal of technical emission reduction and realize human Sustainable development of society.